Surface active antistatic masterbatch can be divided into cationic, anionic, amphoteric, and non-ionic types according to the ionization and ionization characteristics of the hydrophilic groups in the molecules.
When the surfactant is used as an antistatic masterbatch, the antistatic masterbatch molecular layer should be formed on the surface of the material. Groups of the molecule are planted in the resin, and the hydrophilic groups are arranged on the air side.
The former makes the antistatic masterbatch and plastic maintain certain compatibility, the latter absorbs the water molecules in the air on the surface of the material to form a layer of evenly distributed conductive solution or its ionization conduction surface charge to achieve the antistatic effect.
1. cationic antistatic masterbatch
The active part of the cationic antistatic masterbatch molecule is cationic, mostly long-chain alkyl, its anions are mostly nitrogen, methosulfate, and nitrate ester.
This kind of antistatic masterbatch formulation mainly includes various amine salts, quaternary ammonium salts, alkyl amino acid salts, imidazoline salts, quaternary phosphorus salts, and quaternary sulfur salts, among which quaternary ammonium salts are the most used. It has strong adhesion with resin and excellent antistatic properties.
However, some quaternary ammonium compounds have poor thermal stability and react with some colorants and fluorescent brighteners, so they are often used for surface coating, and their use as internal mixing antistatic masterbatch is limited. Cationic
antistatic masterbatch is mainly used in PVC, PS and other polar resins, its antistatic effect is far better than non-ionic antistatic masterbatch. Because of its toxicity and irritation, it is not suitable for food packaging materials.
2. Anionic antistatic masterbatch
In this kind of antistatic masterbatch, the active part of the molecule is an anion, including alkyl sulfonates, sulfates, phosphoric acid derivatives, advanced fatty acid salts, carboxylate salts, and polymeric anionic antistatic masterbatch, etc. The cationic part is mostly alkali metal or alkaline earth metal ions, ammonium, organic amines, amino alcohols, and so on.
Anionic antistatic masterbatch has good heat resistance and antistatic effect, but it affects transparency. In the plastic industry, in addition to some alkyl phosphate ester, alkyl sulfate ester and its amine salt are used as external antistatic masterbatch of PVC and PS plastic products, generally less used as an internal antistatic masterbatch.
The main types of anionic antistatic masterbatch include antistatic masterbatch NP (nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether), antistatic masterbatch ABPS (nonyl phenoxy propane sulfonate sodium), antistatic masterbatch DPE (p-nonyl phenyl ether sulfonate potassium), antistatic masterbatch P (alkyl phosphate diethanolamine salt) and so on.
3. Amphoteric antistatic masterbatch
Amphoteric antistatic masterbatch mainly refers to a class of antistatic masterbatch that contains both anionic and cationic hydrophilic groups in its molecular structure.
This kind of antistatic masterbatch has low toxicity, less affected by air humidity and cationic, anionic, non-ionic antistatic masterbatch has good compatibility and polymer materials have good compatibility, the antistatic effect is good, is a class of excellent performance of internal antistatic masterbatch. There are many compounds with amphoteric ions, but the main ones used as antistatic masterbatch are quaternary ammonium carboxylate salts, imidazoline salts, and alkyl amino acids.
Commonly used amphoteric antistatic masterbatch include dodecyl dimethyl quaternary ammonium acetonitrile, alkyl (polyoxyethylene) quaternary ammonium acetonitrile, lauryl betaine, 2-alkyl-3-hydroxyethyl-3-acetate imidazolidine base, etc. Amphoteric antistatic masterbatch can be used in PP, PE, and ABS.
4. Non-ionic antistatic masterbatch
Nonionic antistatic masterbatch is a good internal antistatic masterbatch, because they are low toxicity or non-toxic, has good compatibility with resin, and have good processing and thermal stability, so they can be used for food packaging materials, but their antistatic effect is generally worse than the ionic type. This kind of antistatic masterbatch component mainly includes polyalcohol esters, polyoxyethylene, hydroxyethyl alkyl amine, fat amide, and so on.
The length of the alkyl chain and the number of polar groups in the molecule of this type of compound is important for the optimal antistatic effect.
(1) Composition with fatty acid polyols
This kind of antistatic masterbatch mainly includes glycerol fatty acid single or double ester and sorbitol fatty acid ester. Its thermal stability is good and gives the product transparency, suitable for PE, PP, and soft PVC internal antistatic masterbatch. Sorbitol fatty acid ester also has good anti-fog.
(2) Composition with Fatty acid polyethylene glycol ester
Polyethylene glycol is an internal antistatic masterbatch used in early polyolefin, but it has poor adhesion, easy ejection, and poor antistatic performance. The esterification of fatty acid with polyethylene glycol greatly improved its compatibility with resin. It is a good internal antistatic masterbatch of polyolefin, but also an important component of synthetic fiber oil, which can give the fiber good antistatic and smoothness. These compounds can also be synthesized by reacting fatty acids with ethylene oxide.
(3) Composition with fatty alcohol or alkyl phenol polyoxyethylene ether
The admixture of polyether of ethylene oxide with fatty alcohol or alkyl phenol as starting masterbatch is an important nonionic antistatic masterbatch. It is generally used in synthetic fiber oil masterbatch and can give good antistatic, smooth.
An internal antistatic masterbatch has good thermal stability, suitable for PVC, PE, PP, PS, and ABS resin.
(4) Composition with Hydroxyethyl adipose amine
Long chain alkyl amine and ethylene oxide admixture have good heat resistance, and suitable compatibility with resin is the main use of hydroxyethyl adipose amine antistatic masterbatch.
This product can be used as an antistatic masterbatch for polyolefin, film, plate, and molded products, with good antistatic effects.
(5) Composition with Alkanolamides and their esters
These compounds can be synthesized by two methods: lipoamide and ethylene oxide plus ethylene and low-density polyethylene.
(6) Composition with Alkyl ether alcohol amine compounds
The representative product synthesis method is fatty alcohol and ethylene oxide ring-opening, forming hydroxyl alkyl ether, and then condensation with alkyl alcohol amine.
These compounds have good thermal stability and are highly effective antistatic masterbatch for high-density polyethylene and polystyrene.